History of Sikhs of Jammu and Kashmir
The state of Jammu and Kashmir is inhabited by people of different faiths, such as Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Budhs and few Christians. Every community has its own history. The History of Sikhism can be traced in three phases. First phase includes the visit of various Sikh Gurus to the State and sending missionaries to propagate Sikhism in the state. Second phase starts when Raja Sukh Jeevan Mal a Durani Governor and his role in establishment of Sikhism in the Valley. To all this the final touch was given by conquest of State by the Sikh Masters (Maharaja Ranjit Singh) (Sher-e-Punjab) and there role in propagating Sikhism in State. (1) It would not be wrong to mention the Holocaust of 1947 which totally shattered the Sikhs of Jammu and Kashmir.
At the time of birth of Guru Nanak Punjab had been continuously a prey to foreign invaders and internal anarchy right from the 10th century onwards. Hoarders of invaders were pouring into Indian territories with no less aim of plundering, molesting and massacring the dumb folded Indian masses. (2) In Punjab there was political chaos and confusion as it lacked political personality who could have provided effective Government as Bilhol Lodhi was a weak ruler of Punjab who failed to withstand the outside onslaught. (3)
Before the advent of Guru Nanak many religions were in practice on the Indian scene such as Brahmanism, Budhism, Jainism, Nathism, Vaishnovism, Shovism had their sway over vast areas.
Guru Nanak was born on 21st October, 1469 at a village called Talwandi on the bank of river Ravi near Lahore(Talwandi was renamed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh as Nankana Sahib in Sheikhpora district of west Punjab now presently in Pakistan) (4)
Guru ji was married at the age of (16) in 1485 to Sulakhni ji. Guru ji had two sons namely Srichand, the elder one and Lachmidas, the younger one. (5)
Guru ji received the Cosmic Vision at the early age and started serving humanity to remove the evil customs of the society. He had great zeal to propagate the message, for this purpose he wanted to visit all centres of various religions and to meet their heads of his time for reorientation in the religious outlook. (6) He took up this mission and to complete it Guru Nanak had to travel for 24 years (1497-1521) all over the world in all four directions such as east, south , north and west. These travels were called Udasis. His tours are called as four Udasis.
Guru Nanak’s visit to the state was during the third udasi which was towards north. It took about 4 years to be completed (1515-1519) (Distance covered was 5056 miles). This journey was through mountainous regions of Himachal Pradesh, Nepal, Tibet, Sikim, Bhutan, China (Nanking), Leh, Ladakh, Kashmir and then Jammu. (7)
During the visit of Guru ji to the valley Zoin-ul-Abbdin occupied the throne and crown of Kashmir, he brought prosperity to the creatures of God by his virtues. He adopted justice as his policy and made peace with all his password. He was popularly known as Badshah. (8) After his death the sultanate declined and there was chaos and confusion. (9)
At that time there were Punjabi Brahmins settled in valley as they were basically merchants as principal intercourse of valley was with Punjab, as Amritsar was main centre of trade. The language of these Brahmins was Punjabi they could be easily distinguished from Kashmiri Pandits (Brahmins) called as (Golers) as per education, language, culture and customs. (10) The presence of Punjabi Brahmins helped for spread of Sikhism in valley, it paved a way for Guru Nanak.During the third udasi guru Nanak was accompanied by Hassu, a smith and Shion, a calico printer. (11) Gur ji entered Ladakh vie Tibet through Chousal Pass from snow peaks glaciers crossing river Sindh. Guru ji reached Upshill and then traversing a distance of about 30 kilometers reached Koru from there they reached Hemus Gumpa a biggest Budhist monastery at Ladhak. Guru ji halted at a place in Ladhak where a Gurdwara has been built to commemorate the visit of Guru ji. It has been named as Gurdwara Pathar Sahib. (12)
Important events of Guru ji including the visit includes the visit to Mortand (The Sun temple) an important meet of Guru Nanak with Brahm Dass an eminent scholar of Sanskrit a resident of Bijbehara a famous lace for Sanskrit learning. (13) Brahm Dass had objected Guru ji on his dress and had discussions with Guru Nanak and finally convinced and became his disciple. He was appointed by Guru ji as propagator for Kashmir. A Gurdwara at Mortand has been built where the discussion took place to commemorate the visit of Guru Nanak. (14)
Accompanying Brahm Dass Guru ji visited the home town of Brahm Dass at Bijbehara a Gurdwara has been built to remember the visit of Guru Nanak. Along with Brahm Dass Guru ji visited Awantipur (a town established by Raja Awantivarman an ancient Hindu ruler of Kashmir) wher they meet one muslim Faqir known as Kamla influenced by Guru ji he became his disciple and was appointed as the propagator of Sikhism in Kara-Kurram. Among other centres included Kaabul and Kandhar. Gurdwara stands built to commemorate the visit of Guru ji at Awantipur (Awantipura). Other places include Beru, Pahalgam and Amarnath cave and Shankracharya.
Guru ji was able to make many converts as they went preaching the worship of one supreme God and the path of enmity and service. (15)
Now Guru ji and his party moved towards Jammu through Pir Panjal pass reached the banks of river Tawi just behind Raj Mahal. At that time Jammu was ruled by the descendants of Biram Dev, who had been close associate of Bilhol Lodhi Sultan od Delhi and had titled him as Raja of Jammu. (16) Among the places visited by Guru ji in Jammu includes Caves of Peerkho. At this place some Jogis had taken Asylum. These Jogis were motivated by the words of Guru ji who asked them to serve humanity and leave the caves they abided by directions of Guru ji. (17) Guru ji visited Purmandal (Puramandal enjoys high reputation & is called Chota Kashi) a small hamlet about 39 kilometers from Jammu the south east. (18) Guru Nanak had not to work hard in Jammu to make converts as Jammu had topographical ties with Punjab. So the influence of Sikhism which had started in Punjab had entered into Jammu. After completion of his tour Guru Nanak returned back to his home town Kirtarpur vie Himachal Pradesh. (19)
Guru Arjan Dev ji (1581-1606) the fifth Guru of Sikhs also played a role in propagating Sikhism. It was on request of Sikhs of Kashmir, Guru ji deputed Mado Sodhi to propagate Sikhism and thus became first missionary to come from Punjab and propagate Sikhism in valley. (20)
Mado Sodhi did commendable job to propagate Sikhism to every nook and corner.
Guru Arjan Dev ji was succeeded by his son Guru Hargobind 6th Guru (1594-1644). (21) Guru Hargobind took up religious tours and trips to propagate the message of Sikhism. His trips included state of Jammu and Kashmir. In 1620 A.D Guru ji visited the state through traditional Mughal route vie Poonch, Rajouri halting here finally rreached Shopian in Kashmir. Gurdwaras were built at Rajouri, Noushera and Bhimber. (22)
While proceeding from Shopian to Srinagar Guru ji visited Shaji Marg in Pulwama. He went into the forests for hunting. Guru Hargobind met Kathu Shah and a deputation of Sikhs. Guru ji held religious congregation and weas able to make many converts. At present a Gurdwara and a Sarai has been built to commemorate the visit of Chaiveen Patshahi wi a chinar tree and the Gurdwara on the bank of a stream. Shaji Marg is famous for visit of Chaiveen Patshahi. (23)
From Shaji Marg, Guru ji Proceeded towards Srinagar here He was accorded a warm welcome by many followers of Sikhism already propagated by Guru Nanak and later by Mado Sodhi. Guru ji reached outskirts of srinagar at the foot of Hari Parbat a place known as Kathi Darwaza, there lived Sewa Dass and his blind mother Mata Bhag Bhari. Former was the preacher of Sikhism. His later presented a robe with great love which was prepared from the yarn spun by her. Guru ji stayed at the home for some time. Guru Hargobind held religious congregations and was able to spread it and make some converts from Hinduism. Thus Kathi Darwaza (Rainawari) became the Hub of Sikh religious activities a Gurdwara has been built at Kathi Darwaza to commemorate the visit of Chaiveen Patshahi. (24)
From Srinagar Guru Hargobind proceeded towards Baramulla. While at Baramulla for the purpose of hunting Guru ji visited forests of Kalampura located in the outskirts of a village called Singhpora. To remember the huntig spot of Guru Hargobind a Gurdwara has been built up by name Gurdwara Thara Sahib at Kalampura. (25) At present Singhpura village is densely populated by Sikhs in District Baramulla. In Baramulla Guru Hargobind held religious congregations on the bank of r4iver Jehlum under chinar. Guru ji was able to strengthen the mewssage of Sikhism in Baramulla. The historic Gurdwara of baramulla was built in the memory of Guru ji by the name of Gurdwara Chaiveen Patshahi.
Guru Hargobind while returning back vie Muzaffarabad visted Param Pillan about 50 Kilometeres from Baramulla near Uri. It is believed that 6th guru had some discussion with Muslim Saints. (26) Gurdwara Param Pillan stands to commemorate the visit of Guru ji.
Guru ji appointed Bhai Garhia to look after the preaching work as he was a zealous propagandist of Sikhism. (27) Guru Hargobind left back to Punjab vie Muzaffarabad having religious congregations halted at Nallochi in Muzaffarabad and finally reached back. (28) Guru Hargobind’s grand son and successor Guru Har Rai (7th Guru) Also visited Kashmirto preach Sikhism in 1660 A.D. On reaching Srinagar Guru ji visited Gurdwara set up. Bhai Mado ji in locality of Maharaja Ranbir Ganj, Devi Angan, Haq Bazar near Hari Parbat. (29) Kathi Darwaza had been an important centre of Sikh activities in valley as all preachers of Sikhism tried to settle here.
The conversion of Sikhs to Khalsa (Singh) (Lions) is directly related to Kashmir. Ninth Guru Teg Mal was born on 1st April, 1621 A.D. (30) Guru ji’s father was so much impressed by performance of his son in the tactics of sword, that he changed his name from Tyag Mal to Teg Bahadar which means Hero Of Sword. (31)
At that time Kashmir was ruled by Mughal governor Iftikar kahn, who followed the policy of Emperor Auregzeb regarding conversion to Islam by force. (32) Kashmiri Pandits were looking for their saviour and had decided to contact Guru ji for Help. (33) A deputation of 16 Pandits with Kirpa Ram Dutt as its leader went to Chak Nanki Anandpur Sahib to meet Guru tegh Bahadar. (34) On 25th may 1675 Guru ji listened and gave them patient hearing and becme pensive. (35) Woeful toles of Kashmiri Pandits moved Guru Teg Bahadar so much that the sorrows of deputation became his own and assured them of help. (36)guru Teg Bahadar became ready for any sacrifice for sake of Kashmiri Pandits to safeguard there religion and to stop conversion. Guru ji left Chak Nanaki after nominating his son Gobind Dass on 5th may, 1732 Bikrimi (11th Nov, 1675). Guru ji was prisoned by Mughal forces and was persuaded to become convert of Islam but after the denial he was sentenced to punishment for execution. Finally he was beheaded (executed in Delhi) where Gurdwara Sis Ganj stands witness to it. (37) Guru ji was titled as “Hind-Ki-chaadar”, (protector of Tilak and Jenu of Hindus), Saviour of Hinduism. (38)
This event inspired the 10th Guru Gobind Dass to covert Sikhs to “Singh’s” to baptize them and boost marshality among them. The origin if Khalsa came into existence after baptization. Guru ji was converted from Gobind Dass to Gobind Singh. Thus origin of Khalsa came into existence. Guru ji entrusted Bhai Fairu Singh ji born in a village Anbmarkhee (Hazara) in 1640 A.D. he was assigned by Guru ji to have missionary work to propagate in frontier districts including Kashmir, the fold of Sikhism. He baptized people, held religious congregations, converted large number of Sehajdhari Sikhs into Amritdhari Sikhs; he visited Chattar Khas, Rawalkota, Poonch, Muzaffarabad. (39) Bhai Fairu ji was able to establish a Sikh Missionary Centre at Rajoeeye (Hazara). He served Sikh Panth for 53 years and propagated Sikh Panth and left for heavenly abode. (40) Before his demise he appointed Bhai Punjab Singh (1672-1736 A.D). He followed the foot steps of predecessor and left no stone unturned to propagate the fold of Sikhism and took up religious tours. During these tours he was accompanied by Rocha Singh. Bhai Punjab Singh established Sikh Missionary Centre at Chatar Kalas in Muzaffarabad. He served Khalsa Panth for 29 years. (41) He was succeeded by Bhai Rocha Singh and was titled as “Thakur” (Savoiur). He was prefixed with the name of Sant ji merely because of Dogra influence. He had been baptized at Malwa. His way of propagation was taking up religious trips to different areas. Sant ji meditated in dense forests of Shalkote in Baramulla. This place is known as Tapiana Sahib. He established Sikh Missionary centre at Rawalkote and Shalkote. (42) the main centre started was at Nangali Sahib in Poonch (frontier area). This Gaddhi continues till date with lot of respect. Sikhs of frontier area had gained high esteem and respect as Bhai Choppar Singh Chibber may be mentioned as male nurse of 10th Guru. Former hailed from Poonch. Frontier area had another importance to a name known as Lachman Dass born on Kartik Sidi (13 samvat, 1727) Bikrimi 27th Oct, 1670 at Rajouri in district Poonch of Kashmir. His father was Ram Dev, a ordinary Rajput of Bhaardwaj Gotar class. (43) His birth place was mostly backward in case of education. (44) All was incalculated in him whatever a Rajput Soldier should possess. (45) Lachman Dass left his home in the company of Bairagi Janak Prasad. He gave him a name of Madho Dass. He settled at a monastery at Nanded in Decccan. Guru ji visited the monastery. After the influence of Guru ji he called himself (Banda) Gurus slave. (46) After being baptized by Guru ji he was named as Banda Singh. Later Banda Singh became the saviour of Khalsa Panth and was titled as (Bahadar). He fought against Mughals and was a big threat for Mughals. Finally on 29th Jamadi-Ul Auhtar 1128 (19th June 1716) he was captured by Mughals and caged and finally killed (Tortured to Death). The village Thenur where Banda lived for a year has Gurdwara cum Samadhi dedicated to Heroic-Personality. The village known as Dera Baba Banda is a dozen miles from Katra on way to Reasi. The practice at Dera Baba Banda is with accordance and tenets and traditions of Sikh Religion. (48)
Second phase is with Sukh Jewan Mal a Durrani Governor (1753-1762). He was a Sehajdhari Khatri of Bhera in west Punjab a Capable minister, a great general, a poet, a scholar. He declared his independence in 1754 and his allegiance with Emperor at Delhi who granted him title of “Raja” and became virtually the ruler of Kashmir. (49) Raja Sukh Jiwam Mal had invited Sikh soldiers from Punjab to assist him. They helped him in collection of Revenue and maintenance of law (Nizmat Regiment). Some of them later on settled in Pargans of Nowgam, Potwar, Dochanpora. These Sikhs were paid in kinds not in cash as they had shown intention to receive in this form. It was in this manner they were called “Jinsi Sikhs”. This step helped the Sikh population to increase. (50) Sukh Jiwan Mal was taken as prisoners and killed by Durrani’s
Third phase begins with the advent of Sikh rule in State of Jammu and Kashmir. As Jammu had become the bone of contention and fell into the hands of Sikh forces under the reign of Maharja Ranjit Singh. Jammu was ruled by Dogra ruler Raja Jeet Singh in 1808 A.D. Sikh forces under the command of Hukam Singh was able to conquer it for Sikh forces after surrender of Saidgarh fort. (52) Thus Jammu was given Jegir to Prince Kharak Singh in 1812. (53)
Reaching Jammu the Sikh rulers wanted to take control of Kashmir. (54) Finally the Sikh forces under the able command of misar Diwan Chand defeated Jabar Khan at Shopian on 15th July 1819 and marched into the capital the next day on 16th July 1819. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was overjoyed at the inclusion of Kashmir in his kingdom that he ordered special illumination of Lahore and Amritsar for three nights. (55) He cherished his joy in this manner. Thus the Sikhs became the masters of Kashmir for a period of 27 years 91819-1846)
Legacy of Sikh rule regarding propagation of Sikhism in valley was renovation of Gurdwaras, Shudi movement launched by S. Hari Singh Nalwa. Renovation included Gurdwara at martand, including the attachment of Jagirs to the Gurdwaras which became source of income for the Langar (Kitchen) of Gurdwaras. (56)
Some villages of Sikhs have the descendants of the Sikhs who had accompanied the Sikh rulers who belonged to different misils, such as Randwa, Wadech and Dhillon. The villages are Chougal, Ranbirpora and Shalpora. (57) These settlements helped to increase the Sikh population. Akali troops were stationed at various places such as Shaheedgunj, Batmalloo, Suthrashahi, these became central places of Sikhism.
Thus the Sikh rule gave final touch to Sikhism in Kashmir. After the decline of Sikh rule, Kashmir came under the control of Dogra rulers. Sikh settlements were mostly at far off places in Baramulla, Tral and Budgam. Dogra rulers recruited Sikhs into various departments for collection of taxes, police, fisheries and various other departments. Mostly Sikhs were Agriculturists.
On the other hand Dera Nangali was continuing its job to propagate Sikhism in State of Jammu and Kashmir. Mahant Bachittar Singh played eminent role in propagation. He took up various religious trips. Important contribution was establishing technical institutes, some for destitutes
and orphans. Till date this Gaddhi is continuing its work with Mahant Bachittar Singh as head of this Gaddhi.
Sikhs of state were enjoying life and had not dreamt of any odd happening which would shake them and take years together to rebuild themselves. As it was the episode of holocaust of 1947 (Tribal raid) which jolted them.
Kashmir valley prior to September-October 1947 used to obtain all essential supplies like food and petrol through the route connecting the newly created Pakistan on 14 August 1947. it was a trend of the politicians of new country to bring pressure on the Dogra ruler Maharaja to cut all supplies to State by virtue of which he would have no other option to go with Pakistan, as state of Jammu and Kashmir was a Princely State. The leaders of Pakistan assured that the rights of Maharaja would be saved if he would go with them. (58)
It was that a Pathanistan Movenent had been launched by Pathans of Pakistan to get rid of this the poor tribal people (pathans ) and secure Pakistan safety and speedy accession of Kashmir to Pakistan all in one stroke. To complete it what was needed was the expedition and were used to capture it before the end of Oct-1947 and enable Jinnah to celebrate Idd on 26th Oct- 1947 (11 Zilhaj 1366) on Sunday.
CALANDER FOR THE YEAR 1947 MONTH OF OCTOBER
This operation was given the name as “OPERATION GULMARG”, and was given practical shape. (59) The main target of the tribals/raiders were Sikhs as “Tension had gripped between the Sikhs and Muslims”. (60)
First to become soft target of the tribals was Muzaffarabad which had three Tehsils, Muzaffarabad, Karnah and Uri adjacent to Baramulla. It had a population as under
CENSUS OF 1941
The area was surrounded by mountains and lies across river Kishen Ganga. (61) Many Sikh villages were situated in Muzaffarabad. It was the raid of the tribals that took place during the night of 21st and 22nd October 1947. (62) These tribesmen who were led by experienced Military officers of regular army of Pakistan well familiar with terrain and had all modern weapons. (63)
There was some resistance by the forces of Maharaja and few locals but raiders were able to concentrate into all areas. Sikhs were the main targets of tribals, many were killed some families were able to reach Gurdwara Chaiveen Patshahi Baramulla through forests where free langarhad been arranged by the Sikhs of Baramulla. Entire Sikh community was frightened. On 25th Oct tribals attacked Islamabad, 26th Oct they attacked Uri, killing, plundering and molesting. Tempos of tribals were high and moving towards Baramulla according to the strategy planned as it was the main target of the tribals. Baramulla had an Important river which did flow from here known as river Jehlum on both the banks of it, there were Sikh villages. Tribals had planned to be on 26th Oct 1947 (11 Zilhaj 1366) to be at Srinagar on this day to celebrate Idd. It was that instead of Srinagar they were in Baramulla at this day. (64) The town of Baramulla was sacked, houses burnt, looted, young girls molested. Some ladies to save their respect burnt themselves alive, jumped into river Jehlum. Even the Nuns of St. Joseph hospital were not spared which includes 20 year old Indian nurse Philomena. She was shot dead. (65)
Tribals had to face less resistance by the forces of Maharaja but could hold them. It was that in this fight Brigadier Rajinder Singh was killed. Almost all Sikh villages of Baramulla were attacked. The episode of Balgam-Shura which was itself a holocaust and many Sikhs were killed at this spot. (66) It would not be wrong to mention here that local Muslims helped the Sikhs and Hindus to hide at their homes by which they could be saved. Role of Maqbool Sherwani who was later killed by tribals. Raiders had not left Ilaqa Khamroz which had 23 Sikh villages. The Sikh villages of karun included Singhpora mostly the Sikhs were killed and few had reached Kanahama and had reached to Ichama a village in Budgam where Sikhs fought back with the tribals. (67)this village was attacked as Commander of tribals Major Khurshid Anwar Khan had received news of collection of Sikhs at Ichama it was to infuse heavy causalities on them this village was attacked. (68) Three villages in this area were attacked were Dalwana, Fojipora and Saidvin as they were adjacent Sikh villages.
Maharaja had no other alternative to sign the accession with India as situation was grim. On 26th Oct 1947 the accession of Kashmir took place by request of Indian troops to check the tribal invasion. Not only that he had to sign the accession with India and became obligatory at the part of India to defend it.
It became certain that Indian Army would be flown to state to fight the tribals. I Sikh under the command of Lt Col D.R Rai was stationed at Gurgaon (Haryana). A company and a battery of 13 Field Regiment Artilery for Infantry role was first to be flown landed at 0930hrs on 27th Oct 1947 and rest of Battalions reached till afternoon. (69) This landing was possible trough the Damodar landing Strip, which was used by Maharaja for his private Plane. Later on the strip of Maharaja Hari Singh became Airfield. Tribals wanted to stop the entrance of Indian Army to valley as it would be blow for them. To do these raiders tried to attack the Airfield. For this purpose on 3rd Nov, 1947 the battle took place at Budgam. It was a big set back for the tribals as the Indian troops had landed to save the Valley from tribals.
CALANDER FOR NOVEMBER 1947
Baramulla was ransacked by the tribals but later on get freed by Indian Army. A forceful battle was fought at the outskirts of Srinagar (Shaltang) After of clearance of Baramulla tribals had no left option than to rush back, they did run back vie Muzaffarabad by burning down the bridge so that Indian Army could not come back. Kashmir was reduced by Muzaffarabad this area was taken by the tribals. It is named at present P.O.K (Pakistan occupied Kashmir). Many Sikh Gurdwaras were burnt in this area such as Gurdwara Nallochi at Muzaffarabad, Chillar and many other Sikhs were the worst sufferers at Muzaffarabad, Baramulla, and Budgam.
Tribals saw there defeat now tried to concentrate form other areas such as Rajouri, Poonch, Mirpur and other areas. Another area attacked was Pullandri which had Sikh population as per census of 1941 as under
Rajouri was attackeddd by tribals on 11th Nov, 1947 (Tuesday). The garism commander was killed fighting gallantry and had to withdraw. Large number of Refugees made their way to Noushera, Rawalkot in Thesil Bagh. (71) It was on (4th Muharram 1367) (18th Nov, 1947) Poonch was attacked having strategic importance. Population of this area was according to the census of 1941.
Tribals did not spare people but had to force stiff resistance by Indian forces. Role of Brigadier Pritam Singh who played great role. Tribals did not even spare Dera Nangali. (72) Finally Poonch was taken up by 161 Infantry Brigade on (20th Nov, 1948). (73) Refugees of this area were flown to Jammu by Indian forces. There were many Sikh villages in Mirpur, Kotli was one of its Tehsil. (74)
Another district which reveals the Saga of 1947 was Mirpur with population of Sikhs as under
TOTAL POPULATION OF MIRPUR, CENSUS OF 1941
On 27th November 1947 strategic town of Mirpur fell into the hands of Azad forces. (75) Gurdwara Ali Bagh had great importance to Sikhs of this area as many Sikhs were killed in this Gurdwara and later on burnt by the tribals. People who could save themselves reached Jammu in shape of refugees as Mirpur had bus link with Jammu. (76) Now raiders were planning to attack Jammu, (77) a fierce battle raging in Noushera, Jhongar area. (78) Loss of Jhongar was a big set back for Indians as it fell on 24th Dec, 1947. (79) Sikhs of Askardu in Gilgit (Ladakh) had alssso to bear the brunt of tribal raid. (80)
It was almost whole of state of Jammu and Kashmir was touched wherever there was Sikh population besides few areas such as Tral, Pothwar, Nowgam, Dechanpora. The Holocaust of 1947 was a big jolt for Sikhs on all grounds such as socio economic conditions of Sikhs was totally shattered. Sikh families became homeless lost all what they had. They were in shape of Refugees wandering from place to place in form of Nomads for their living.
In general socioeconomic conditions of Sikhs has improved a lot as compared to early times. Sikhs of state mostly have adopted the profession of transport, Government jobs, Agriculture and few Businessmen. Sikhs of state have become politically aware about their identity and has produced many political leaders. Sikhs of state have more bent towards religion as they prefer to celebrate the religious festivals with full gay and gaiety. Many Gurdwaras which had been made from early times have been renovated which include Gurdwara Chaiveen Patshahi Bramulla, Sinagar, Shaheed Bunga, Kalampura and many others.
Sikhs of state have been able to produce many leaders in all fields such as social, religious and political. They include Akali Kour Singh, Bhai Kanaiya Singh, Jathedar Kapur Singh, Bhai Kartar Singh Komal, Sant Bachittar Singh, Sant Singh Teg, S. Harbans Singh Azad, Dr. Harbajan Singh and many others.
It shows that the Sikhs of state after witnessing the Holocaust of 1947 have toiled and come up in good hues. It was only possible as the Sikhs of state were Indigenous
PROFESSOR LUCKVINDER SINGH
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- Y Pyne-A Short History of Sikhs, Reprint Delhi, 1970, P. 50
- Ibid, P. 51
- Karam Singh-Banda Bhadar, Jullandhar, 1932, PP. 25-28
- M Ganhar-Jammu Shrines & Pilgrimages, Delhi, P. 113
- N.K Bamazai-A history of Kashmir, Delhi, 1962, PP. 392, 393
- R Lawrence-The valley of Kashmir, Delhi, P. 300
- M Latif-History of Mughal Rule in Kashmir, 1974, P. 356
- Sohan Lal-Udmat-Ul-Twarikh, P. 9
- Hutchson and Voghal-History of Punjabs Hill States, P. 530
- The Sikh Review-Lindsay Street Calcutta, April, 1988, P. 31
- k Pormoo-History of Sikh rule, P. 28
- J.S Sarna-Sikh Shrines in Kashmir, Chandigarh, 1994, P. 18
- Statement of Giani Sardool Singh
- Ambedkar-Pakistan or Partition of India, Bombay, 1954, P. 21
- N.K Bomazai-Culture and Political History of Kashmir, Delhi, P. 756
- 21st Oct, 1947-Dawn, Karachi, (A.M Jinnah)
- Krishna Mehta-This happened in Kashmir, Delhi, P. 2
- Maj Gen K.K Nanda-Conquering Kashmir Pakistans obsession,New Delhi,1994, P. 69
- Joseph Kerbell-Danger in Kashmir, 1992, P. 97
- Maj Gen D.K Polit-Jammu and Kashmir Arms, Dehradun 1972, P. 195
- P Kumar-,Rape of Baramulla, P. 36
- Panthak Sandesh, Nov, 1982, P. 31
- Ibid, Nov, 1981, P. 33
- S Dukhiya-Lahoo Bharian Yadaan, Jammu, P. 124
- Lt Gen K.K Nanda-Conquering Kashmir, Pakistans Obsession, P. 72
- P Kumar-Kahmir Proxy war, P. 18
- Maj K. Brahm Singh-History of J&K Rifles 1820-1956, P. 254
- S Shaktiman-Kashmir te Sikh, Patiala, P. 201
- P Kumar-Kashmir Pakistans Proxy War, P. 25
- Ellison Bates-Gozother of Jammu, Kashmir & Ladhak, P. 64
- Civil and Military Gozottor Lahore, 28 Nov, 1947
- P Kumar-Kashmir Pakistans Proxy war, P. 27
- Hindustan Times, Delhi, 6 Dec 1947
- Hindu-24 Dec, 1947
- Maj K Brahm Singh-History of Jammu and Kashmir Rifles (1820-1956), P. 64
- Panthak Sandesh, Nov, 1982, P. 37